The amount of solar radiation reaching the earth's surface varies greatly because of changing atmospheric conditions and the changing position of the sun, both during the day and throughout the year. Clouds are the predominant atmospheric condition that determines the amount of solar radiation that reaches the earth. Consequently, regions of the nation with cloudy climates receive less solar radiation than the cloud-free desert climates of the southwestern United States. For any given location, the solar radiation reaching the earth's surface decreases with increasing cloud cover.

Maryland Solar Insolation Map

*) Insolation is a measure of solar radiation energy received on a given surface area in a given time. It is commonly expressed as average irradiance in watts per square meter (W/m²) or kilowatt-hours per square meter per day (kW·h/(m²·day)) (or hours/day))